Skip to main content

Full text of "Statistics relative to Japanese immigration and the Japanese in California"

See other formats


\TLl 



Statistics Relative 

To 

Japanese Immigration 

And 

The Japanese in California. 



x 



Japanese Association of America 

444 BUSH STREET, 
San Francisco. 



Price: 5 cents per copy, $1.50 per 50 copies, $2.00 
per 100 copies in postal stamps, check, or currency. 



JAPANESE ARRIVALS TO AND DEPARTURES FROM 
CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES 

(OFFICIAL FIGURES OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION) 
Year Arrivals Departures 

1908 9,544 4,796 

1909 2,432 5,004 

1910 2.598 5,024 

1911 4,285 5,869 

1912 5,358 5,437 

1913 6,771 5,647 

1914 8,462 6,300 

1915 9,029 5,967 

1916 9,100 6,922 

1917 9,150 6,581 

1918 11,143 7,191 

Note: The decline of figures in 1909 is the result of the 
working of the "gentlemen's agreement." The "gentlemen's 
agreement" admits (1 ) former lesidents of the Tinted States. 
(2) parents, wives, and children of lesidents, and (3) settled 
agriculturists. This is, of course, in addition to non-laboring 
Japanese, such as diplomats, merchants, financiers, students, 
etc., who are free to come. 

Increase of Japanese arrivals in the past several years is 
due to these facts: 

(1) Due to the war Japanese officials, business men, etc.. 
going to Europe, have passed through the United States. The 
figures for such Japanese must be twice the actual number, 
because they are counted once at Pacific ports upon arrival 
of those Japanese from Japan, and counted again at Atlantic 
ports upon their return there from Europe. 

(2) The war obliged Japanese students, who would have 
gone to Europe in normal times, to come to the United States. 

(3) The enormous increase of American Japanese trade 
by the war caused many Japanese firms to send agents to 
America and to establish branch offices and agencies in San 
Francisco, Seattle, New York, and other leading American 
cities. Many of the office forces brought their families with 
them. These naturally increased Japanese arrivals. 

In 1914 Japan imported from America $54,000,000 worth 
of commodities. In 1918 this increased to $275,000,000. In 
other words, Japanese purchases from America increased 
more than five-fold in five years. In the same period Japanese 
exports to America increased three times. 



II 

JAPANESE ARRIVALS CLASSIFIED INTO LABORERS 
AND NON-LABORERS 

(OFFICIAL FIGURES OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION) 
Year Laborers Non-Laborers 

1909 675 1,757 

1910 589 1,909 

1911 726 3,556 

1912 894 4,464 

191- 1,371 5,400 

1914 - 1,762 6,700 

1 9 15 2,214 6,815 

1916 2,958 6,142 

1917. 2,838 6,321 

1918 2,604 8,539 

Xote: The "gentlemen's agreement" prohibits the admis- 
sion of "new" laborers from Japan, but admits Japanese of 
the following three classes, whether laborer or non-laborer: 
(1) Former residents, who return to America within 18 
months following their departure from America. (2) Parents, 
wives and children of Japanese residing in America. (3) 
Japanese who have settled in America as agriculturists. 

The Japanese Government, of course, makes it a rule not 
to issue passports to laborers other than those coming under 
the above classification. But it is sometimes difficult to dis- 
tinguish a laborer from a non-laborer. The Japanese Gov- 
ernment may issue a passport to a Japanese whom it believes, 
upon inquiry, to be a non-laborer, but in the judgment of the 
American immigration authorities, this same Japanese may 
be regarded as a laborer. Such cases ai e quite conceivable. 

Many laborers in this table have departed for Japan, but 
figures for departing laborers are not obtainable, because the 
reports of the Commissioner General of Immigration do not 
classify departures into laborers and non-laborers. 



Ill 

JAPANESE ARRIVALS TO CONTINENTAL UNITED 

STATES CLASSIFIED INTO MALES 

AND FEMALES 

(REPORTS OF COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION) 
Year Males Females Total 

1909 1,777 867 2,644 

1910 1,648 1,039 2,687 

1911 2,377 1,905 4,282 

1912 2,930 2,428 5,358 

1913 4,012 2,759 6,771 

1914 5,034 3,428 8,462 

1915 5,542 3,487 9,029 

1916 5,869 3,231 9,100 

1917 5,833 3,326 9,159 

1918 7,100 4,043 11,143 

Note: The above figures include minors. 

It is difficult to ascertain how many of these women are 
so-called "picture brides." In the next table (Table IV) fig- 
ures are given for the "picture brides" who have entered the 
United States through the port of San Francisco. Figures for 
other ports are not obtainable. 

The majority of these women are wives who married be- 
fore their husbands left Japan to this country, and who, there- 
fore, are not "picture brides." 



IV 

JAPANESE WIVES (SO-CALLED PICTURE BRIDES) 
ARRIVING PORT OF SAN FRANCISCO 

(COMPILED BY JAPANESE ASSOCIATION FROM THE RECORD OF THE 
SAN FRANCISCO IMMIGRATION OFFICE) 
Year Number 

1912 879 

1913 625 

1914 768 

1915 823 

1916 486 

1917 504 

1918 . „ 520 

1919 Li65 

Total 5,070 

Note : When a man living in America desires to marry, but 
is prevented by various reasons to go home, he writes to his 
parents and asks them to find a suitable woman for his bride. 
The parents, following the usual customs and rules, fix on an 
eligible person. Then they intimate to the girl's parents that 
they aie desirous of securing her marriage to their son in 
America. The parents on either side spare no pains in in- 
quiring into the character, social standing, family relations, 
genealogy, health and education of the young man and woman. 
If this investigation proves satisfactory, both to the parents 
and to the prospective groom and bride, the man in America 
sends his photograph to the woman, and receives her photo- 
graph in exchange. This "interview" through photographs 
proving satisfactory to both parties, the nuptial knol is lied 
at a ceremonial dinner in which the groom, living in America, 
is naturally absent, but which is attended by the bride and the 
parents and relatives of both sides. This done, the parents 
register the marriage with the proper authorities. This mar- 
riage has been regarded as valid both by the Japanese and 
American Governments. This practice is to be abolished after 
February 25, 1920. 



V 
TOTAL JAPANESE POPULATION IN CALIFORNIA 

(FIGURES OBTAINED SEPTEMBER. 1918, BY JAPANESE ASSOCIATION 
OF AMERICA) 

Men : 41,842 

Women 12,232 

Boys 7,877 

Girls 7,031 

Total 68,982 



VI 
FARMING JAPANESE POPULATION OF CALIFORNIA 

(FIGURES OBTAINED SEPTEMBER, 1918, BY THE JAPANESE AGRICUL- 
TURAL ASSOCIATION OF CALIFORNIA) 

Farmers 7,973 

Farmers' wives 4,560 

Farmers' boys under 16 years 3,396 

Farmers' girls under 16 years 3,114 

Farm Hands 15,794 

Farm Hands' wives 1,663 

Farm Hands' boys under 16 years... 771 

Farm Hands' girls under 16 years.... 737 

Total 38,008 

Note : Japanese farm hands are paid $4.50 to $5.00 per 
day without board. White faun laborers work for $3.50 to 
$4.00 per day. This is one of the reasons why Japanese farm- 
ers, especially rice farmers, prefer white help to Japanese. 

Both Japanese and white farm hands eat the same food at 
the same table. 

Japanese farmers deal with local American banks and not 
with Japanese banks in San Francisco. 



VII 
LAND CULTIVATED BY JAPANESE IN CALIFORNIA 

(FIGURES OBTAINED BY THE JAPANESE AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION 
AT THE END OF 1918) 

No. of Farms Acreage 

Owned ...... 527 29.105 

Leased 5,936 336,721 

Total 6,463 365,826 

Note : In addition to this, there are a number of American 
corporations in which Japanese farmers have minor interests. 
The area cultivated by such corporations is estimated at about 
13,000 acres, mostly rice fields and vineyards. 

In most cases the Japanese take up lands avoided by 
white faimeis as worthless or uupi ofitable. When the Japa- 
nese, by dint of their industry, intelligence, and efficiency, 
prove the worth of such lands the value and price of adjoin- 
ing lands inci eases phenomenally. This has been the case at 
Livingston, Fresno, Florin and in Butte County. 



VIII 
FARMING SPECIALIZED BY JAPANESE 

(COMPILED BY JAPANESE AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION 
AT THE END OF 1918) 

Per Cent of 
D ... Acreage by Total Acreage Japanese to 

Product Japanese by All Total Acreage 

Berries 5,968 6,500 91.8 

Celery 3,568 4,000 89.2 

Asparagus 9,927 12,000 82 7 

Seeds 15,847 20,000 79.2 

Onions 9,251 12,112 76 3 

Tomatoes 10,616 16,000 66.3 

Cantaloupes _ 9,583 15,000 63.8 

Sugar Beets 51,604 102,949 50.1 

Green Vegetables.... .17,852 75,000 23 8 

Potatoes 18,830 90,175 20.8 

Hops 1,260 8,000 15.7 

Grapes 47,439 360,000 13.1 

Beans..... 77,107 592,000 13. , 

Rice 16,640 106,220 S&Vb 

Cotton 18,000 179,860 10. 

Corn 7,845 85,000 9.2 

Fruits and Nuts 29,210 715,000 4. 

Hav and Grain 15,753 2,200,000 0. 

Note: Figures for acreage cultivated by Japanese are 
obtained by the Japanese Agricultural Association of Cali- 
fornia. Figures for total acreage are obtained from the offi- 
cial reports of the State Board of Agriculture and of the 
California Development Board. 

This table shows the fields specialized by Japanese farm- 
ers. They have taken up the kind of farming shunned by 
white farmers, such as berry, celery and asparagus cultures 
which requires stooping posture on the part of the workers. 
The Japanese, being comparatively short in stature, are par- 
ticularly adapted to such farming. 

The percentage of Japanese acreage is very small in such 
fanning as grain, hay, corn, fruit, and nut culture, which does 
not require hard manual labor. In such fields white farmers 
are predominant. 

The table shows that the Japanese farmers do not compete 
with the white farmers. The Japanese simply filled the gap 
created by the unwillingness of the other fanners to engage 
themselves in certain kinds of farming. 



IX 

NON-FARMING JAPANESE POPULATION 
IN CALIFORNIA 

(FIGURES OBTAINED SEPTEMBER, 1918, BY THE JAPANESE ASSOCIATION) 

Men. 18,075 

Women 6,006 

Boys 3,710 

Girls 3,180 

Total 30,971 



X 
JAPANESE BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN CALIFORNIA 

(OFFICIAL FIGURES OF STATE BOARD OF HEALTH) 
Year Births Deaths 

1908 455 431 

1909 682 450 

1910 719 440 

1911 995 472 

1912 1,467 524 

1913 2,215 613 

1914 - 2,874 628 

1915 3,342 663 

1916 3,721 729 

1917 4,108 910 

Total 20,578 5,860 

Note : This rate of increase in Japanese births is abnormal, 
and will soon decline. The sudden increase in 1912 is due to 
the fact that about that time Japanese men in California 
began to marry. Since then a majority of men who intended 
to marry, have married. Consequently in a few years the rate 
of increase in Japanese births from year to year will begin to 
decline. This point must be borne in mind in examining this 
and the following tables. 

It is estimated by the Japanese Association of America 
that from 1908 to 1917 Japanese wives in California, including 
"picture brides," increased at a yearly average of 1,000, while 
the average yearly increase of Japanese births in the same 
period was 465. This shows that even at present the tendency 
is for decrease of births. According to the same estimate, the 
average age of Japanese adults is above 40. Within a IVw 
years, therefore, Japanese births will show marked decrease. 



XI 

PERCENTAGE OF JAPANESE BIRTHS TO THE TOTAL 

BIRTHS IN CALIFORNIA AS COMPARED WITH 

THAT OF WHITE BIRTHS 

(OFFICIAL FIGURES OF STATE BOARD OF HEALTH) 

Percentage of Percentage of 
Japanese Births White Births 
Year to Total Births to Total Births 

1908 1.6 96.8 

1909 2.2 96.3 

1910 2.2 96.1 

1911 - 2.9 ' 96.5 

1912 3.7 94.6 

1913 5.5 93.2 

1914 6.2 91.9 

1915 6.9 91.3 

1916 7.3 91.4 

1917 7.8 90.6 



XII 

JAPANESE BIRTHS COMPARED WITH WHITE BIRTHS 
IN CALIFORNIA 

(OFFICIAL FIGURES OF STATE BOARD OF HEALTH) 
Total Births 

Including White Japanese 

Year All Races Births Births 

1908 28,077 27,190 455 

1909 30,882 29,736 682 

1910 32,138 30,893 719 

1911 34,426 33,245 995 

1912 39,330 37,194 1,467 

1913 43,852 40,864 2,215 

1914 46,012 42,281 2,874 

1915 48,075 43,874 3,342 

1916 50,638 46,272 3,721 

1917 52,230 47.314 4,108 



XIII 

JAPANESE BIRTHS IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY 
AND CITY 

(OFFICIAL FIGURES OF STATE BOARD OF HEALTH) 

Japanese Other 

Year Births Births 

1908 114 6,182 

1909 164 6,426 

1910 175 7,322 

1911 231 7,994 

1912 355 9,852 

1913 532 11,207 

1914 i 717 11.398 

1915 935 10,912 

1916 1,146 11,010 

1917 1,265 11,249 



XIV 

JAPANESE BIRTHS IN EIGHT COUNTIES OF SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA (INCLUDING LOS ANGELES COUNTY) 

(OFFICIAL FIGURES OF STATE BOARD OF HEALTH) 



1908. 
1909. 

1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 



Japanese 


White 


Births 


Births 


144 


9,028 


201 


9,518 


216 


10,659 


302 


11,841 


443 


14,516 


683 


16,769 


955 


17,474 


1,231 


18,014 


1,492 


18,759 


1,642 


19,182 



XV 

AMOUNTS CONTRIBUTED TO U. S. WAR LOANS BY 
JAPANESE IN CALIFORNIA 

(APPROXIMATE ESTIMATE BY THE JAPANESE ASSOCIATION 
OF AMERICA) 

First Loan $ 250,000 

Second Loan 280,000 

Third Loan [ 838,800 

Fourth Loan 750,000 

Fifth Loan 530,000 

Total. ,„. $2,648,800 

Note: A very large percentage of Japanese in California 
have joined the American Red Cross, although figures of such 
Japanese are not obtainable. In Contra Costa County, for 
example, it is said that almost all Japanese families have 
become members of the Red Cross. 



l UMHwi